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Conjunctions and Transitions are used to connect ideas, paragraphs and sentences. Without these forms, fluent writing and speech would be much more difficult.
Although most native speakers are aware of the grammatical differences, transitions and conjunctions are used in different ways, even if the same word can be used as either a transition or a conjunction.
Transitional phrases follow a full stop and form a new sentence. Transitional phrases are also separated from the following sentence by a comma.
|Showing consequences or effects||Adding Information||Exemplifying||Generalizing||Emphasizing||Summarizing||Comparison||Contrast|
|As a result||In addition||For instance||Generally||Above all||In the end||Similarly||However|
|Consequently||Furthermore||In particular||On the whole||Especially||Overall||Likewise||On the other hand|
|Therefore||Likewise||Specifically||Generally speaking||In fact||All things considered||Despite that||On the contrary|
|For this reason||Finally||As an illustration||As a rule||Of course||All in all||In the same way||Regardless|
A coordinating conjunction is used in a sentence and follows a comma. It is used to join two clauses.
Subordinating Conjunctions are used to create complex sentences. A subordinating conjunction does not need to be separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma. They can be used at the start of a sentence, or in the middle. When a subordinating conjunction is used at the start of a sentence its meaning (or strength) is emphasized. When the conjunction is used in the middle of a sentence its meaning is weaker.
There are too many conjunctions and transitions to list them all here. However, the table below contains some of the more common forms.
|Function||Conjunctions and Transitions|
|Addition||Also, Again, And, And then, As well as, Besides, Coupled with, Equally important, First, Finally, Furthermore, In addition, In the first place, Last, Likewise, Moreover, Next, Plus, Second, Still, Too|
|Concession||Accordingly, Granted, Naturally, Of course|
|Consequence||Accordingly, As a result, Consequently, For this reason, For this purpose, Hence, Otherwise, So then, Subsequently, Therefore, Thus, Thereupon, Wherefore|
|Contrast and Comparison||Although, Also, And yet, (But) at the same time, Despite, Despite that, Even so, Even though, For all that, However, In contrast, In spite of, In the same way, Instead, Likewise, Nevertheless, Notwithstanding, On the contrary, On the other hand, Otherwise, Regardless, Similarly, Still, Though, Yet|
|Direction||Above, Beyond, Here, In the distance, Nearly, Opposite, Over there, There, To the left, To the right, Under|
|Diversion||By the way, Incidentally|
|Emphasis||Above all, Chiefly, Certainly, Especially, Indeed, In fact, Of course, Particularly|
|Example - Illustration||After all, As an illustration, Even, For example, For instance, In conclusion, Indeed, In fact, In other words, In short, It is true, Of course, Namely, Specifically, That is, To illustrate, Thus|
|Exception||Aside from, Barring, Besides, Except, Excepting, Excluding, Exclusive of, Other than, Outside of, Save|
|Generalizing||As a rule, As usual, For the most part, Generally, Generally speaking, Ordinarily, Usually|
|Reiteration||In essence, In other words, Namely, That is, That is to say, In short, In brief, To put it differently|
|Summary||All in all, Altogether, As has been said, Finally, In brief, In conclusion, In other words, In particular, In short, In simple terms, In summary, On the whole, That is, Therefore, To put it differently, To summarize|
|Sequence||After a while, Afterwards, Again, Also, And then, As long as, At last, At length, At that time, Before, Besides, Earlier, Eventually, Finally, Formerly, Further, Furthermore, In addition, In the first place, In the past, Last, Lately, Meanwhile, Moreover, next, Now, Presently, Previously, Prior to, Second, Shortly, Simultaneously, Since, So far, Soon, Still, Subsequently, Then, Thereafter, Too, Until, Until now, When|